The term usually excludes covert groups, such as intelligence agencies or guerrilla warfare insurgencies, that hide their activities and memberships but maintain a public presence. The exact qualifications for labeling a group a secret society are disputed, but definitions generally rely on the degree to which the organization insists on secrecy , and might involve the retention and transmission of secret knowledge , the denial about membership or knowledge of the group, the creation of personal bonds between members of the organization, and the use of secret rites or rituals which solidify members of the group.
Secret society - Wikipedia
A purported "family tree of secret societies" has been proposed, although it may not be comprehensive. Alan Axelrod, author of the International Encyclopedia of Secret Societies and Fraternal Orders , defines a secret society as an organization that:. Historian Richard B. Spence  of the University of Idaho offered a similar three-pronged definition of a secret sociability:.
David V. Barrett, author of Secret Societies: From the Ancient and Arcane to the Modern and Clandestine , has used alternative terms to define what qualifies a secret society. He defined it as any group that possesses the following characteristics:. Barrett goes on to say that "a further characteristic common to most of them is the practice of rituals which non-members are not permitted to observe, or even to know the existence of.
Historian Jasper Ridley argues that Freemasons is, "the world's most powerful secret Society. Because some secret societies have political aims, they are illegal in several countries. Italy Constitution of Italy, Section 2, Articles 13—28 and Poland ,  for example, ban secret political parties and political organizations in their constitutions.
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Many student societies established on university campuses in the United States have been considered secret societies. Perhaps one of the most famous secret collegiate societies is Skull and Bones at Yale University. Secret societies are disallowed in a few colleges. The Virginia Military Institute has rules that no cadet may join a secret society,  and secret societies have been banned at Oberlin College from  to the present,  and at Princeton University since the beginning of the 20th century. Confraternities in Nigeria are secret-society like student groups within higher education.
The exact death toll of confraternity activities is unclear.
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One estimate in was that people had been killed in campus cult-related murders in the previous decade,  while the Exam Ethics Project lobby group estimated that students and teachers had been killed between and While their existence had been speculated for years, internet-based secret societies first became known to the public in when the secret society known as Cicada began recruiting from the public via internet-based puzzles.
The only secret society abolished and then legalized is that of the philomaths ;  it is now a legitimate academic association founded on a strict selection of its members. Many Christian Churches forbid their members from joining secret societies. Further, by abstaining from membership in secret societies. We will on no account tolerate our ministers and members joining or holding fellowship with secret societies, as, in the judgment of The Allegheny Wesleyan Methodist Connection Original Allegheny Conference , it is inconsistent with our duties to God to hold such relations.
Also see Lev. Award-winning researcher and end time prophecy expert, Dr. Bob Thiel, disseminates and later compares ancient prophecies of the world's 11 major religions, explains which prophecies are not likely to occur and describes which world changing events are inevitable. Of particular interest to anyone interested in the events leading up to and following is the book's Sequential Order of Predictions, a comparable table and time line. A masterful and well-researched work unlike any other on the subject, and the Rise of the Secret Sect will change the way we look at, and prepare for, the most anticipated date in human history.
Bob Thiel, Ph. Throughout his academic and professional career, he has studied philosophy, religion, science, and prophecy, while making multiple research trips to ancient sites in Central America, Asia Minor, Rome, and Greece. Thiel has been a guest on countless radio programs nationwide, and is Examiner.
His articles on prophecy, religion and science have appeared in several dozen magazines, newspapers, trade publications, and scientific journals. His videocasts are seen weekly on YouTube and to the hundreds of thousands of visitors to his site, COGwriter. Thiel is to be commended for being able to show how biblical End-Time prophecies relate to non-biblical predictions of End-Time events.
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Thiel s captivating compendium of end time prophecy from Protestant, Catholic, Hindu, Byzantine, and other sources provide an insightful look into the final chapter in the age of human kind. Thiel shows how such prophecies coalesce into a single moment in history-the end of days. This is a valuable source for all interested in the future. Germano, Ed. Congress authorized the Secret Service to protect a former President and his wife during his lifetime.
Unless declined, protection for the widow and minor children of a former President was extended to four years after the President leaves or dies in office.
Protection was extended to the widow and minor children of a former President until March 1, Mrs. Kennedy and children. Congress authorized protection for the widow of a former President until her death or remarriage. Minor children of a former President were granted protection until they reached 16 years of age, unless protection was declined. As a result of presidential candidate Senator Robert F. Kennedy's assassination, Congress authorized protection of major presidential and vice presidential candidates and nominees.
The White House Police Force was renamed the Executive Protective Service and increased its responsibilities to include the protection of diplomatic missions in the Washington, D. Phyllis Shantz became the first female officer sworn into the Executive Protective Service modern-day Uniformed Division on September 15, Congress authorized Secret Service protection for visiting heads of a foreign state or government, or other officials as directed by the President.
The 60 acres of land purchased by the U. Rowley Training Center. An assassination attempt was made on presidential candidate George Wallace in Laurel, Maryland, on May 15, Congress authorized protection for the immediate family of the Vice President. Congress authorized protection for the spouse of a major presidential or vice presidential candidate. Congress enacted legislation requiring that Presidents in office prior to January 1, , will continue to receive Secret Service protection for their lifetime.
Presidents elected to office after that time will receive protection for 10 years after leaving office.
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Six Secret Service personnel were among the killed. The Secretary delegated to the Director of the Secret Service, the authority to carry out such closings. The Telemarketing Fraud Prevention Act Public Law was passed, which allows for criminal forfeiture of fraud proceeds for convictions of violations of 18 U. Sections , , , or , or of a conspiracy to commit such an offense, if the offense involved telemarketing. Section to establish the offense of "Identity Theft. For the first time, the agency had its own building with headquarters personnel housed under one roof.
Previously, the agency had rented office space in buildings throughout the Washington, D. In addition, it gave the Secret Service limited administrative subpoena power for use in protective intelligence investigations when a threat to a protectee is determined to be imminent. Amidst the terrorist attacks of September 11, , Craig J.
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Miller of the Secret Service was one of the more than 2, people who were killed. In October of , President Bush signed into law H. In response to this legislative mandate, the Director of the Secret Service designated eight major metropolitan areas, where assets and resources were directed, establishing a network of regional Electronic Crimes Task Forces across the United States. Protection began for presidential candidate Illinois Senator Barack Obama in May, the earliest initiation of Secret Service protection for any candidate in history. Presidential candidate New York Senator Hillary Clinton already received protection before she entered the race due to her status as former First Lady.
In , Congress passed legislation H. The bill applied to Vice Presidents holding office on or after the date of enactment and also authorized the Secretary of Homeland Security to direct the Secret Service to provide temporary protection for these individuals thereafter if information or conditions warrant such protection.