In fluent English speech 'on', 'in' and 'an' often sound very similar. In Panjabi spelling most writers use an apostrophe in such shortened words as '3', 'ij', elc. Ie is called a postposition because it f JlIows the noun. Colloquial pronunciation Note that Central Panjabi has no breathy voiced consonants. Lislen to the recording again and note the pronunciation of the following words having I in the transcription. You may already have discovered them by then! Look at the table of consonants and see which consonant is replaced by which and look at the type and position of the lone in relation to the type and position of the breathy voiced consonant.
However, you can pronounce these words with the breathy voice if you like. But do nOl forgel 10 use the correct Panjabi tone. See the introductory chapter 'Panjabi pronunciation and writing system'. But he refers to his younger brother simply as mera: c! Varma is not being disrespectful 10 his younger brother. He is simply following the standards of Panjabi social behaviour. The hierarchical culture of Ihe tmditional Panjabi society shows itself in the use of the language as well. We are jil'e brothers and sisters.
Three brothers and two sisters. We are four. I luJve three older brothers. There is no mystery in this. Can you act as an interpreter? You; Official: You; Neighbour. What 's your name? What 's your job? How mony children do you have? Boys or girls? Do they go to school? You: When you have the building blocks of the language words. In other words, as you progress.
These exercises are meant to help you in both these processes. Read carefully what we have done so far and then attempt these exercises. After each exercise. Carefully note down and analyse your mistakes and attempt the exercise again next week. As you progress. More and more practice will help you remember more and more. Remember that Correct. This virus ate , orms of the verb ft t and then 10 add insult 10 injury! Can you restore what the virus has gobbled up? MOHAN: sot sri: oko. K ULW What would you like 10 have? How much do JOu wont?
A pound of carrots, two pounds of QuiJergilles, two pounds of torrwtoes. We don't have tomatoes today. It's okay. I want green coriander too. Do you want green chjllies as well? Vocabulary vo:'Uguru: m kirpo: j c6:fU:do: [c6:i:do:J b'ln R. You are likely to come across different pronunciations ofltufta:4,o: such as t'uo:4,a:l, It'octo:. But you are absolutely safe with the pronunciation used in this book.
JUSt be aware of the differences which exist. While listening to the recording of the dialogue you may have nOliced that the l sound in kol is different from the I sound in ako:! Some dialects of Panjabi including the one used in this course have two varieties of l.
In addition to the ordinary I sound, they use a stl'ange-sounding to Western ears variety of I in words like kol. You pronounce it by curling the tongue backward, as you do for t, 4, and t. Linguists write this sound as land cal l it retron ex l. They would transcribe kol as kol. But we wil l not be using the symbol l in our transcription, and the Panjabi alphabet has no special letter for the l sound either.
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It uses the letter K for both I and l. But if you find this sound hard, do not use it and stick 10 I. Many speakers of Panjabi do not use it either. Brothers and sisters Mohan addresses Kulwant as bltq,Jl: 'sister' and Kulwant responds by addressing him as biOTa: ji: 'brothe r'. Addressing unrelated people in this way is a part of the culture of the Indian subcontinent.
Note thai the the 'object of desire' is the grammatical subject in such canst. So the verb carries the number-gender affix according to 50 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 51 the desired object. If the person wants two pounds of carrots. Note the feminine plural affix in c6. So we glossed it as 'me-to'. But changes in pronunciation do take place when postpositions are added to pronouns. These changes are discussed in the Grammatical summary.
IS word is difficult to translate. D AS: kid. Are you alright? How conI be alright? My legs and a nn. I' Now lie down here. On the cushion. Yes, Well don e! Raise your rig t foat Yes ". Now bring both your fUI down ". Well done! RaISe bolh youranns. Don't worry. Raise them Very good You are perfectly okay. In this book it"e and ut"e are used as unstressed forms and et"e and ot"e as stressed fOffils. But this is not a standard rule. You can even use only one variant of each of these two words if you li ke. Strong and weak forms of postpositions and adverbs of place Some postpositions in Panjabi can be used in both strong and weak fonns.
For example, the postposi tion u tte is used in its unemphatic fonn Ie in Vocabulary kiddo:'! O let goddo: m Idtt"e But you can use the strong form and say gadde uUe if you wish lay stress on u tte. You can also say gadde de u tte if you want to lay extra emphasis. Compound postposi lions are discussed below. See also the Grammatical summary, page He is discussing his plan with Mr Saggoo. Dr Singh uses Mr Saggoo, what's your opinion?
Where should the computer be placed? Oblique form shelves along the walls. Do nOi let this technical term of grammar frighten you. The Panjabi fonn it refers to is really quile si mple to use.
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In the English expressions 'from me', '10 him' and 'with them', the English pronouns ' I', 'he' and ' they' become 'me', 'him' and 'them' respeclively because each of them is preceded by a preposition in these examples. TIle ordinary i. In And the computer? H ve the computer in the middle of a? Won " it be okay near ,he door. No, And the filing cabinet? No, my left, and Jour righl. But this is not really the case, It is still masculine singular. Also note the order of words. It is extremely important to use the direct and oblique oons of Panjabi nouns and pronouns correctly.
They are fully described on pages 22 in the Grammatical sununary of the book. You may need to refer 10 these tables when you do the exercise at the end of this unit. Postpositions, compound postposltlons and adverbs In Panjabi some words function both as adverbs of place and postposi- lions. An adverb of place indicates a location. Similar examples in English are words like 'below', which can be used either as prepositions, as in 'below the surface' or as adverbs, as in 'the examples given below'.
All the Panjabi postpositions except DU: 'to'. In English, expressions like ' in front or, ' in the middle or, 'on top or: eLe. Sueh expressions may be called compound prepositions. Examples include bukMfa:, bassol and ko:rti:. Ba:e olIo:! The y are black adJectIVes' discussed below. RuItPucc"o bedroom kitrl'e Rc. Yes, [,mfine. Oh God! Why headache? Go and bring a cup of tea.
In the pocket. But it's not ,here. It 's nOI in the pocket of the shirt.
Well, mOSI of them certainly do! When Shafi asks his wife to bring a cup of lea, he says jo: go co:8 lea lio: bring He does not add the 'polile' request man:er-o to Ihe verbs jo:and lio:. But that does nol mean that he is ordering her or is Showing disrespect to her. If he had used jo:o and lio:o instead, she would have interpreted it as sarcasm, Zubaida, on the other hand, has to use the 'respectfu l plural' fonns to her husband even when she makes a joke about his being forgetful!
Such linguistic usage simply reflects the social conventions of the traditionally male-dominated Panjabi society. In the Mdroom. Now ask me where the bedroom is. Sir, the bedroom is in the house; the house This exclamation expressing a mi ld surprise listen to the recording again for intonation is used almost exclusively by Muslim women. Chained postposHional phrases What 's this joke? The associated grammatical rules are a red adjectives never change their form; b black adjectives change their fonn according to the number and the gender of the nouns they are used with ; c only black adjectives have differing oblique forms, The words 'black' and 'red' are used hecause the Panjabi adjective ko:lo: 'black' is a typical black adjective and 'red' is a typical red adjective, The poslpositions do: and vo:la: are also blac k adjectives.
So because of the presence of the postposition do! But since do: itself is a black adjective used with a masculine noun and is followed by another postposition, its final is replaced bye. So do: changes into de. In the followi ng example k"iekl: window You can see that in these examples the black adjeclive ko:lo: gets the same de of s6:ftmOll.
Compatible con los siguientes dispositivos:
I, mere my xio:l opi nion e In m Ihe possessive adjective mero: 'my' is used with the masculine noun do:l. So it is also masculine. Since it ends ino:. The noun do:1 does not end in So its fonn does not change. Possessive adjectives like merD: 'my' and tu For direct and oblique fonns of other possessive adjectives see the Grammatical summary, page The red adjective does nOI change ils fonn al all. Then mark the following statements as T true or F false.
You are advised to listen to the recording a second time or even a third time with these statements in mind before YOU mark them as T or F. He does not want a terrace house. He wants a house with a garage and a garden. He is ve ry particular about a nice bathroom. He would prefer a house with a rear garden. Since Panjabi has no articles the equivalents of the English 'a', ' an' and 'the'.
Also, do not translate 'car'. They have been adopted by Panjabi. I want two pounds of carrots. I want a house. I want a cup of tea. I wish to have a daughter, not a son. But my brother would like to have a son. I want two rooms in a hotel. What do you want? I want a radiator under the window. Can you supply them, remembering to choose between direct and oblique fonns?
Yo ur leacher or a classmate or some PanJabl -speakmg friend can play the shopkeeper. If you cannot find anybody to play the shopkeeper. The sh. Your part of the conversation is given 10 Eng hsh. Reply to the greeting. How arc you? Do you have green chillies today? Shopkeeper: You: One pound.
I want two pounds of tomatoes as well. But these tomatoes are not red. No, I want red tomatoes. It's OK. Shopkeepe r: tiara: dllOnilo I don ' t want coriander today. Yes,l want some okra as well. REM: Ril: ji:. After school. He also preunu Asian programmes on a Canodian TV channel. Prem stayed on in India , learnt music and became a composer with Doordrashan, the Indian television company. During Prem's conart tour of Canada, the two friends met after thirty years. AVlar, after presenting Prem 's concert on the TV, is now interviewing him. Mohal w:flab, songi:t mem: f;:,k n6fii:, kamm 8e. Besides music.
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It 's my profession, my bUSiness. But J do have a number of hobbies. I'm fond of reading, writing poetry and songs, and cooking. She likes my food a lot, bllt my music not at all. Daughters, yes; SOliS, REM: d"l. By doing this you change emphasis and focus of attention, but the sentence will remain grammatically correct. Repetition of words to emphasise number or quantity or intensity is very common in Panjabi and other South Asian languages.
Some linguists use the term 'dative subject' to refer to the experiencer in such sentences. But it is beller to avoid this confusing term and use the term experiencer. Gerund or verbal noun The main reason why we are giving word-for-word English glosses below the Panjabi sentences should be clear 10 you by now. Languages can In the English sentence represent the 'same' reality in different ways.
What is the subject of the I am fond of reading sentence in English may not be the subject in the corresponding Panjabi sentence. For example, in the English sentence the word 'reading' functions as a noun. You could substitute a noun for it and say 'I am fond of books. But in the Panjabi equivalent me. Having a temperature, hunger, thirst. In Panjabi, you don't literally have them: rather, they are to you or they happen to you. You are simply an experiencer. Since word order in Panjabi sentences is very free, you English is called a gerund or a verbal noun. Study the ollowing examples carefully.
YOU-to food cooking You are fond of cooking dOl.. Q: you-to food You like cooking. T [oro:oo: posand n6Ri: kordo:. I like your flute very much. Vou may have noticed ilial in the gerund, It. For example: flit. J Here IS the flure. Have it. I don', know wI! It appears to me thaI the sound comes from your hea;" 'hrough the flute.
R: Avr R: See also the Grammatical summary. REM: Prem, yo:r teri: bonsori: menll: oo i: cangi: Jogdi: fie. Classical songi:t "i:k fic, par menu: pop music b61iut buro: logdo: Re. I like light Indian music, and also Panjabl folk songs. Vocabulary In Panjabi. Vou can also start such a question with ItI:. Bul you still have 10 use the question intonation. The use of kl: is more common in writing.
Remember that Ill: does not mean 'what' when it is used in this way. After the interview, Avtar is taking Preln home for a dinner. Away from the fommi interview situation and IV cameras, the two friends resumt their older manners of boyhood days Peifeclly true. You have a good understand'. F very close friend flute [0 appear, strike, auach to take to catCh, grasp to say saying meaning sound.
Also, kOfiirt. The language points in this unit deal with the rules of spelling and pronunciation of such words. Whether we like it or not, alllanguages change over time. The Panjabi verb meaning 'tell' or 'say'. The older phonetic spelling qfu is retained in modem Panjabi. As pointed out earlier. I What I really mean is But it can be used metaphorically in experiencer sentences as well. Study the following examples carefully. Note that mere is in me oblique fonn because of the postpositon do:. In other words, do not pronounce the 8 sound in such cases and use the vowel t with a high tone.
Jf you have the cassenes, listen to the pronunciation of the words on that page. I 2 mtou: me-to m' poccl'ami: Western paCC""ami: Western sangi:t music sangl:t music posond liking posand liking korda: doing n. I focuses on music and 2 focuses on the experiencer. You also know that in fluent speech, it is often shortened to c. In the followi ng sentence, -0 is added to c.
You can easily guess that the suffix -0 means 'from'. So you can also have ",.. Meat ndlli: Jr'a:da:, fara:b n6ffi: pi:da:. O: cangi: gall fie. O: k"a:q. It's Avtar's special Javourite. Chicken biriyani. No thanks. I 'm a vegetarian. That's very good. Is it good to be a saint? You will see in Conversation unit 5 that this nu: is accompanied by some other significant grammatical differences as well. REM: slgrit no: not pi:qal cigarette drinking It's good not to smoke. REM: me Also note that she uses the form pi:1l01, and not pi:q, because there is no postposition following the verbal noun.
But when a postposition follows. II would be wrong to translate one of them as 'no' and the other as 'not'. But like 'no' and 'not', DO: and n6Jii: are not interchangeable. You will learn later mat n6:fti: is actually an emphatic form of no:, and we shall deal with me diSlinction in Conversation unit 8. But it has ilS own ways and means of doing what articles do in English. You may have noticed me postposition nu: after the object mt1:ft in the sentence analysed above. It does the work of me definite article 'me'. Spinach, Indian soft cheese.
And also a secret thing. What's the secret thing, sister-in-law? He's just teasing. Why man? What rig"t have you got to tease my. I'm notteasing. There is a secret thing in thefood - prem love. I mean pio:r! Now slOP talking and eal your meal with prem love. Dr Qureshi examines Prem fikar di: koi: gall 06fti:. Sharma sab. This is Dr Qureshi. I inow. Very pleased to meet you. Mr Sharma. How do you know me, doctor? From the tv programme.
Your music is wonderful! He's not well today. What's the matter? I' ve got 0 slight temperature. Also a headache. Is your throat alright? I also have a sore throat and a stomach ache. Doctor, I'm worried. He ha. Prem stays with Avtar. Next morning. Sharma s6:Rob. It's a little bit afflu. Mr Sharma, you need rest, not medicine.
In a formal situation, a plural form ha. So the second interpretation is ' I should eat something now'. He also uses xidmot 'service' where a Hindu or a Sikh would use seva:. As was pointed oul in Conversation unit 1, Panjabi-speaking Muslims use many Arabic and Persian words in their Panjabi speech.
Cases of ambiguity result not only from words having multiple meanings but also and more interestingly from their having multiple grammatical functions.
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An interesting example from English is ' kissed her back. Study the following Panjabi sentence. I The sound of music t'H good A case of ambiguity need medicine rest tabi:at health IHna: today he He's not well today a. If possible, match the grammatical form of your answer 10 that of the question. The first question is answered for you. A' ? B: n6fii: ji:. B: menu: classical songi:t posand fie, pop music n6fii:. Both of you have now read the menu.
My wife, cooking 0. Then look at the following table. Here you will record the speaker's likes and dislikes. With the list in mind, listen to the recording again. Then fill in the boxes with L for 'likes' and 0 for 'dislikes'. But you don't know either. How do you ask the waiter what there is in dhansak? But your friend is a vegetarian. How do you ask the waiter whether they've got vegetarian dhansak?
How do you ask your friend whether he would like to have something else? How do you ask the waiter whether there are chilli and spices in shahi panir? How do you then order one dhansak with rice QI and one shahi panir with naon no:n? There he becomes ill and goes to see a doctor. Their conversation has been translated into English. Can you translate it back into Panjabi? My name is Mohan Singh Gill. Greetings, Mr Gill. Very unwell! I have severe headache and stomach ache. Do you have a temperature as well?
Gill: No. Doctor: Any other problem gall? No, nothing else. Do you smoke or drink? I don ' , smoke or drink. Well, take this medicine. Have a good rest. He goes to Boldev Singh Nijjor. M: ji:. Ie oggo o:g re. Christmas di:o: c"utti:o: c. Christmas di:o: chu[i:o: c tikol m4fl. What can I do for you? I need two return tickets. For yourself? When are you going? In the Christmas holidays. Can't you go before or after that? What 's the matter? The ticket is costly in the Christmas holidays. It 's cheap before and after that. Don't worry about its cost.
The potential form, which looks and sounds like a verbal noun, is used as a proper verb to describe a planned action, as in klWe We shall see later on in the unit that the potenlial form of a transitive verb can have other number-gender forms as well. Do not be tempted to call the potential form the future tense form. As we shall see below, the potential form can also refer to a planned aclion in the past time. Do versus Dc Compare the two sentences gu, H. This particular sample of brown sugar is sweet. We shall translate the verbal noun with the English '-ing' form e.
Note that the verb ja: has no object. Such a verb is known as an intransitive verb. Where do you want to go? Ounda: happening H. It is the general quality of brown sugar to be sweet. He is nol talking about any particular ticket. No other verb has tense forms. Omission of the postposition nih While Speaking about the destination of your journey, you may omit the POStposition nUl.
Instead of saying 86 m. Note thai the masculine singular noun o:gro: assumes the oblique form o :gre before the postposition. When mi: is omitted in such constructions, the oblique fonn stays on, indicating thai the postposition has been omitted. At night. Why at night? The Taj Mahollooks more beautiful on 0 moonlit night than during daytime. Just like you. Is this the age for sexy jokes? Do you have a prayer book? Ie fo:m nil : ki: kama: fit? Ja:m nu: su sapo.
Ta Mahal kadO deiC'qa: fi t? I don't know. You tell me. Lit: What do I know? OK then. Tomorrow morning we'll go out shopping. We'll have our lunch in the Taj Mahal Hotel. And what are we going to do in the evening? We 'll stroll about in the evening. This rule applies unless the object is a definite object marked with mi:, in which case see p. The verb HE is not marked for gender. But it does agree with the object in number. When a verb has more than one object. But you can also say saver nu:. You can use to 'from' in place of no:lO.
When are we going to the Mathura Bindraban temples? The day after tomorow. Charanjit is coming tomorrow. We are going with him the day after tomorrow. But he was coming the day after the day after tomorrow. He was coming Ihe day after the day after tomorrow. But now his programme is to come tomorrow. Vocabulary at midday in the evening at night Comparison m mandar m porsO m.. Other cultures may have different views.
Note the meanings of the fo llowing Panjabi words loday yesterday, tomorrow day before yesterday, day afler IOmorrow day before the day before yesterday, day after the day after fil m I'm going 10 10 see is see a fi lm tufia:qe ne ki : your brother Agt what What is your brother Agt going to do? Whether the other days are in the past or in the future seems unimportanl. Whether it is yesterday or tomorrow does not seem to maner. Some speakers add the postposilion nU l to mark a future day, as the speakers in Dialogue 3 do. But this is not a strict rule ofPanjabi grammar.
With such a concept of time ingrained in its meaning structure, do not be surprised when you are told that Panjabi grammar does nOI have the present, past and future tenses of the type you find in European languages. With the subject of a verb in the potentiaJ fonn, you don' t use any postposition if the subject is the first or the second person pronoun. So if the subject is either of the four pronouns mi: ' I ', aSl: 'we'. But if the subject is a noun or a third person pronoun, you have to add the agentive postposition ne to it. As with other postpositions, the noun or the pronoun is in the oblique case fonn.
These words are difficult to translate, but they help organise your speech and give it particular nuances. They are best learnt in actual usc. Now an example fro m Dialogue 3. As for his coming. You may have noted that these forlnS are marked for number and person, but not for gender. Luckily for you, the most widely spoken dialect of Panjabi has only one past tense form of 8t. This fonn is si:, used with all perso ns and numbers.
The formal wrinen variety of Panjabi has different singular and plural past tense fonns of ftr; for different persons. These forms are given on page in the Grammatical summary. But in your speech. IUsi: ca:co: bllatl:jo: dove befacam A grtar many. New as well as old. As far as I'm concerned, I'm going to see the old things and buildings only. And also aft the Sikh temples. But many new things are also beautiful. You are right, my boy. But an 0ld1ashianed man likes only old things like your aunt.
Have you no sense of shame? Must you say this thing in front of the boy? Charonjit, ,ell me. Do you love your wife? Very much. Is it bad to lovingly lease your own wife? Not at all. You uncle and nephew are both shameless. The use of o:ptta: needs careful attention.
II is used in two ways. I Foremphasis ',6 mer! Below each sentence, the possessive adjective which would be used in other types of construction is also given. I tusi : you o :pOJ1. This use of o :P'l0: is quite straightforward and similiar to the English.
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Ram - When the object is definite and is marked with nu: the n-fonn does agree W1Ul 11 and is in the masculine singular form. So the ordinary possessive adjective mer-a: in the oblique form mere is used. Rather, it has the masculine singular form, which is also used when the verb does not agree with anythi ng. Use of yo:lo: vo:la:. Study the following examples. Speakers of Panjabi use their common sense 10 find out in what sense it is used. You can do the same! Also, you need to know how to combine those words meaningfully grammar. While the number of structures in the grammar of a language is quile limited.
And new words are added almost every day. The Conversation units in this book have their own structural limitations and cannot introduce many words. So a section called Word groups pp. It gives some words grouped according to areas of meaning they genemlly belong to. Now the time has come for you to be able to look for a suitable word in this section or to find the meaning of a word if you know the area it belongs To do the following exercises you may need to know the meanings of some words you may not have come across before.
One of these words is the name of an animal. Look for the meaning of that word in the area' Animals and birds'. I me my ka:r vic komm tej3:do: My potni: kol her own kalr Re. I1,O: fie. My puttar ne ojj his school di: bos vic ja:q,a: Re. What did you do yesterday? Can you help her by acting as an interpreter? But slUdy the whole exercise very carefully first. You may need to find some suitable Panjabi words from the 'Travel and transport' and 'Numbers' areas of the Word groups section.
Clerk: Where is she going? Does she want a single ticket or a return ticket? He also mnJces his COnversat I. But he halt'S unhealthy life st. Is there a burning sensation in the chest? Are you feeling giddy? Did you vomit yesterday? Are 'ou a doctor or a prophet? You have already come across e"i:k, and you know that it means "fine', 'heallhy', etc.
But it is less forma1 and more collCXJuiai. This is why it is called an echo word. Its effect is difficult to describe. In Dialogue 3. Echo words are different from paired words such as cO:A po:qi: 'tea water'. When two meaningful words which are also somewhat related in meaning are paired, lhe meaning of the pair as a whole is deliberately vague. Interestingly enough, tea is not a strictly necessary component ofoo: 6 po:qi:. Don', ask questions. Yes, I did. The perfective form MA1. Delivery in Days. See our Delivery Charges section below for a full breakdown of shipping costs for all destinations.
Category: Other Language Dictionaries. Colloquial Panjabi: The Complete Course for Beginners has been carefully developed by an experienced teacher to provide a step-by-step course to Panjabi as it is written and spoken today. Combining a clear, practical and accessible style with a methodical and thorough treatment of the language, it equips learners with the essential skills needed to communicate confidently and effectively in Panjabi in a broad range of situations.
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